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HashMap源码学习

晓果冻
2021-09-21 / 0 评论 / 1 点赞 / 275 阅读 / 14,829 字
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HashMap源码学习

关系图

image-20210811165723834

属性

//默认初始容量
static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 1 << 4; // aka 16
//最大容量
static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30;
//默认负载因子,太大时间复杂度高,容易碰撞。太小浪费空间,时间复杂度低
static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;
/*相同数据量下红黑树(TreeNode)占用的空间是链表(Node)的俩倍 , 考虑到时间和空间的权衡 , 只有当链表的长度达到阈值时才会将其转成红黑树。
*/
//链表长度最大长度
static final int TREEIFY_THRESHOLD = 8;
//红黑树最小个数,小于6则转成链表
static final int UNTREEIFY_THRESHOLD = 6;
//数组容量
static final int MIN_TREEIFY_CAPACITY = 64;

transient Node<K,V>[] table;
//包含HashMap中所有键值对的set集合
transient Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet;
transient int size;
//modCount来记录修改集合修改次数
transient int modCount;
//扩容大小
int threshold;
//负载因子
final float loadFactor;
//内部类,实现了Map.Entry,单向链表
static class Node<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final int hash;
        final K key;
        V value;
        Node<K,V> next;

        Node(int hash, K key, V value, Node<K,V> next) {
            this.hash = hash;
            this.key = key;
            this.value = value;
            this.next = next;
        }

        public final K getKey()        { return key; }
        public final V getValue()      { return value; }
        //重写了toString()方法
        public final String toString() { return key + "=" + value; }

        //将key的hash值和value的hash值进行异或运算
        public final int hashCode() {
            return Objects.hashCode(key) ^ Objects.hashCode(value);
        }

       //赋值,将旧的值返回
        public final V setValue(V newValue) {
            V oldValue = value;
            value = newValue;
            return oldValue;
        }

		//key和value的值都一样才返回true
        public final boolean equals(Object o) {
            if (o == this)
                return true;
            if (o instanceof Map.Entry) {
                Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>)o;
                if (Objects.equals(key, e.getKey()) &&
                    Objects.equals(value, e.getValue()))
                    return true;
            }
            return false;
        }
    }

构造方法

//默认无参构造方法
public HashMap() {
        this.loadFactor = DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR; // 将默认加载因子赋值
    }
//指定初始化大小
public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
        this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
    }
    
public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
		//初始值为负数时,抛出异常
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                               initialCapacity);
        //如果初始容量超过2的30次方,则容量置为2的30次方
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        //如果负载因子如果是非正数或者值为Nan的时候抛出异常
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                               loadFactor);
        this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
        //计算需要扩容的大小
        this.threshold = tableSizeFor(initialCapacity);
    }

计算扩容大小

//解释了为什么扩容的大小都是2的n次方
static final int tableSizeFor(int cap) {
        int n = cap - 1;
        n |= n >>> 1;
        n |= n >>> 2;
        n |= n >>> 4;
        n |= n >>> 8;
        n |= n >>> 16;
        return (n < 0) ? 1 : (n >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ? MAXIMUM_CAPACITY : n + 1;
    }

获取hash值hash(Object key)

/**
*如果是null,那hash值为0
*为减少hash碰撞,否则将hash值右移16做异或运算
**/
static final int hash(Object key) {
        int h;
        return (key == null) ? 0 : (h = key.hashCode()) ^ (h >>> 16);
    }

put操作

final V putVal(int hash, K key, V value, boolean onlyIfAbsent,
                   boolean evict) {
        // n代表数组长度 i 代表key在数组下标位置
        Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, i;
        //判断现在的table是不是空
        if ((tab = table) == null || (n = tab.length) == 0)//懒加载 使用的时候在加载  
        //是的话就进行扩容
            n = (tab = resize()).length;
 		//如果对应下标index师傅冲突  没冲突就直接赋值 
        if ((p = tab[i = (n - 1) & hash]) == null)
            tab[i] = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
        else {
            Node<K,V> e; K k;
            //如果hash值且equlas内容之也相等, 则直接覆盖
            if (p.hash == hash &&
                ((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                e = p;
            //如果是红黑树结结构,则直接追加在红黑树上
            else if (p instanceof TreeNode)
                e = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).putTreeVal(this, tab, hash, key, value);
            else {
            //循环遍历列表 ,追加到末尾
                for (int binCount = 0; ; ++binCount) {
                    if ((e = p.next) == null) {
                        p.next = newNode(hash, key, value, null);
                        //如果数组长度>=64且链表长度大于8 则转为红黑树
                        if (binCount >= TREEIFY_THRESHOLD - 1) // -1 for 1st
                            treeifyBin(tab, hash);
                        break;
                    }
                    //查找列表中是否存在该key 如果存在 则直接修改
                    if (e.hash == hash &&
                        ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                        break;
                    p = e;
                }
            }
            //将新的value覆盖到老value上
            if (e != null) { // existing mapping for key
                V oldValue = e.value;
                if (!onlyIfAbsent || oldValue == null)
                    e.value = value;
                afterNodeAccess(e);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        ++modCount;
        if (++size > threshold)
            resize();
          afterNodeInsertion(evict);
        return null;
    }
    
    
 final Node<K,V>[] resize() {
 //赋值
        Node<K,V>[] oldTab = table;
        //第一次put时肯定table为空  所以得到old=0
        int oldCap = (oldTab == null) ? 0 : oldTab.length;
        //threshold 下一次扩容的大小
        int oldThr = threshold;
        int newCap, newThr = 0;
        if (oldCap > 0) {
            if (oldCap >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
                threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
                return oldTab;
            }
            else if ((newCap = oldCap << 1) < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY &&
                     oldCap >= DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY)
                newThr = oldThr << 1; // double threshold
        }
        else if (oldThr > 0) // initial capacity was placed in threshold
            newCap = oldThr;
        else {               // zero initial threshold signifies using defaults
            newCap = DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY;
            //计算下次扩容时的大小
            newThr = (int)(DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR * DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY);
        }
        if (newThr == 0) {
            float ft = (float)newCap * loadFactor;
            newThr = (newCap < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY && ft < (float)MAXIMUM_CAPACITY ?
                      (int)ft : Integer.MAX_VALUE);
        }
        threshold = newThr;
        @SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"})
            Node<K,V>[] newTab = (Node<K,V>[])new Node[newCap];
        table = newTab;
        //例如当放入第13个key-v时,执行,重新计算index值
        if (oldTab != null) {
            for (int j = 0; j < oldCap; ++j) {
                Node<K,V> e;
                if ((e = oldTab[j]) != null) {
                    oldTab[j] = null;
                    if (e.next == null)
                        newTab[e.hash & (newCap - 1)] = e;
                    else if (e instanceof TreeNode)
                        ((TreeNode<K,V>)e).split(this, newTab, j, oldCap);
                    else { // preserve order
                        Node<K,V> loHead = null, loTail = null;
                        Node<K,V> hiHead = null, hiTail = null;
                        Node<K,V> next;
                        do {
                            next = e.next;
                            if ((e.hash & oldCap) == 0) {
                                if (loTail == null)
                                    loHead = e;
                                else
                                    loTail.next = e;
                                loTail = e;
                            }
                            else {
                                if (hiTail == null)
                                    hiHead = e;
                                else
                                    hiTail.next = e;
                                hiTail = e;
                            }
                        } while ((e = next) != null);
                        if (loTail != null) {
                            loTail.next = null;
                            newTab[j] = loHead;
                        }
                        if (hiTail != null) {
                            hiTail.next = null;
                            newTab[j + oldCap] = hiHead;
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
        return newTab;
    }   

判断map是否是空map

//判断的是长度而不是判断是非为null
public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size == 0;
    }

根据key获取value

//获取key的hash值,再根据hash值和key去获取Node
V get(Object key) {
        Node<K,V> e;
        return (e = getNode(hash(key), key)) == null ? null : e.value;
    }
    
    
final Node<K,V> getNode(int hash, Object key) {
        Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> first, e; int n; K k;
        //将当前map的数组赋值给tab,判断它!=null
        //判断map数组的长度
        //根据hash值取出对应的node
        if ((tab = table) != null && (n = tab.length) > 0 &&
            (first = tab[(n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
            /*判断当前的key、value是否和first节点的一样,此first不是数组下标0的first,而是每个下标衍生出来的链表*/
            if (first.hash == hash && // always check first node
                ((k = first.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                return first;
            //判断是否有next节点
            if ((e = first.next) != null) {
            	//判断是否是红黑树
                if (first instanceof TreeNode)
                    return ((TreeNode<K,V>)first).getTreeNode(hash, key);
                //否则遍历链表
                do {
                    if (e.hash == hash &&
                        ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                        return e;
                } while ((e = e.next) != null);
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

判断是否包含某key

//底层还是调用getNode方法
public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
        return getNode(hash(key), key) != null;
    }

删除某key

public V remove(Object key) {
        Node<K,V> e;
        return (e = removeNode(hash(key), key, null, false, true)) == null ?
            null : e.value;
    }
    


/**
* @param hash key的hash值,该值是通过hash(key)获取到的
* @param key 要删除的键值对的key
* @param value 要删除的键值对的value,该值是否作为删除的条件取决于matchValue是否为true
* @param matchValue 如果为true,则当key对应的键值对的值equals(value)为true时才删除;否则不关心value的值
* @param movable 删除后是否移动节点,如果为false,则不移动
* @return 返回被删除的节点对象,如果没有删除任何节点则返回null
final Node<K,V> removeNode(int hash, Object key, Object value,
                               boolean matchValue, boolean movable) {
        Node<K,V>[] tab; Node<K,V> p; int n, index;
        //同getNode的判断,这个tab[index = (n-1)&hash]好理解多了
        //找node的过程和getNode相同
        if ((tab = table) != null && (n = tab.length) > 0 &&
            (p = tab[index = (n - 1) & hash]) != null) {
            Node<K,V> node = null, e; K k; V v;
            if (p.hash == hash &&
                ((k = p.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                node = p;
            else if ((e = p.next) != null) {
                if (p instanceof TreeNode)
                    node = ((TreeNode<K,V>)p).getTreeNode(hash, key);
                else {
                    do {
                        if (e.hash == hash &&
                            ((k = e.key) == key ||
                             (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
                            node = e;
                            break;
                        }
                        p = e;
                    } while ((e = e.next) != null);
                }
            }
            //删除重头戏
            if (node != null && (!matchValue || (v = node.value) == value ||
                                 (value != null && value.equals(v)))) {
                //如果是红黑树,走红黑树的删除
                if (node instanceof TreeNode)
                    ((TreeNode<K,V>)node).removeTreeNode(this, tab, movable);
               //由于删除的是首节点,那么直接将节点数组对应位置指向到第二个节点即可
               else if (node == p)
                    tab[index] = node.next;
				//如果是首节点,那指明后一个节点为首节点
                else
                    p.next = node.next;
                //操作modeCount记录修改次数
                ++modCount;
                --size;
                /* 调用afterNodeRemoval方法,该方法HashMap没有任何实现逻辑,目的是为了让子类根据需要自行覆写*/
                afterNodeRemoval(node);
                return node;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }
    
//与上面的区别是给定了value并指定matchValue为true
@Override
    public boolean remove(Object key, Object value) {
        return removeNode(hash(key), key, value, true, true) != null;
}

清空map

//size置为0,数组每个下标都存放null,并不是将数组置为null
public void clear() {
        Node<K,V>[] tab;
        modCount++;
        if ((tab = table) != null && size > 0) {
            size = 0;
            for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i)
                tab[i] = null;
        }
    }

是否包含某值

public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
        Node<K,V>[] tab; V v;
        //判断数组是否null或者长度是否为0
        if ((tab = table) != null && size > 0) {
            for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
            //遍历数组每个下标中的链表
                for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
                    if ((v = e.value) == value ||
                        (value != null && value.equals(v)))
                        return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

keySet()

//其实是个Set集合,将map中的key值都存放在set集合上
public Set<K> keySet() {
        Set<K> ks = keySet;
        if (ks == null) {
            ks = new KeySet();
            keySet = ks;
        }
        return ks;
}

final class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
        public final int size()                 { return size; }
        public final void clear()               { HashMap.this.clear(); }
        public final Iterator<K> iterator()     { return new KeyIterator(); }
        public final boolean contains(Object o) { return containsKey(o); }
        public final boolean remove(Object key) {
            return removeNode(hash(key), key, null, false, true) != null;
        }
        public final Spliterator<K> spliterator() {
            return new KeySpliterator<>(HashMap.this, 0, -1, 0, 0);
        }
        public final void forEach(Consumer<? super K> action) {
            Node<K,V>[] tab;
            if (action == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
                int mc = modCount;
                for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
                    for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
                        action.accept(e.key);
                }
                if (modCount != mc)
                    throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }
}

values()

//类似上面的keySet(),将map中的value值都存放在集合上
public Collection<V> values() {
        Collection<V> vs = values;
        if (vs == null) {
            vs = new Values();
            values = vs;
        }
        return vs;
}


final class Values extends AbstractCollection<V> {
        public final int size()                 { return size; }
        public final void clear()               { HashMap.this.clear(); }
        public final Iterator<V> iterator()     { return new ValueIterator(); }
        public final boolean contains(Object o) { return containsValue(o); }
        public final Spliterator<V> spliterator() {
            return new ValueSpliterator<>(HashMap.this, 0, -1, 0, 0);
        }
        public final void forEach(Consumer<? super V> action) {
            Node<K,V>[] tab;
            if (action == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
                int mc = modCount;
                for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
                    for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
                        action.accept(e.value);
                }
                if (modCount != mc)
                    throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }
}

entrySet()

//返回包含HashMap中所有键值对的set集合
public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
        Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> es;
        return (es = entrySet) == null ? (entrySet = new EntrySet()) : es;
}

final class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public final int size()                 { return size; }
        public final void clear()               { HashMap.this.clear(); }
        public final Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
            return new EntryIterator();
        }
        public final boolean contains(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>) o;
            Object key = e.getKey();
            Node<K,V> candidate = getNode(hash(key), key);
            return candidate != null && candidate.equals(e);
        }
        //删除最后还是调用removeNode()方法
        public final boolean remove(Object o) {
            if (o instanceof Map.Entry) {
                Map.Entry<?,?> e = (Map.Entry<?,?>) o;
                Object key = e.getKey();
                Object value = e.getValue();
                return removeNode(hash(key), key, value, true, true) != null;
            }
            return false;
        }
        public final Spliterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> spliterator() {
            return new EntrySpliterator<>(HashMap.this, 0, -1, 0, 0);
        }
        public final void forEach(Consumer<? super Map.Entry<K,V>> action) {
            Node<K,V>[] tab;
            if (action == null)
                throw new NullPointerException();
            if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
                int mc = modCount;
                for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
                    for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
                        action.accept(e);
                }
                if (modCount != mc)
                    throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            }
        }
}

getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue)

//获取指定 key 对应对 value,如果找不到 key ,则返回设置的默认值。
@Override
    public V getOrDefault(Object key, V defaultValue) {
        Node<K,V> e;
        return (e = getNode(hash(key), key)) == null ? defaultValue : e.value;
}

替换值replace方法

//替换 hashMap 中是指定的 key 对应的 value,返回值是boolean类型
@Override
    public boolean replace(K key, V oldValue, V newValue) {
        Node<K,V> e; V v;
        if ((e = getNode(hash(key), key)) != null &&
            ((v = e.value) == oldValue || (v != null && v.equals(oldValue)))) {
            e.value = newValue;
            afterNodeAccess(e);
            return true;
        }
        return false;
}

//与上述的返回值不通,替换对应key的value并返回之前的value
@Override
public V replace(K key, V value) {
        Node<K,V> e;
        if ((e = getNode(hash(key), key)) != null) {
            V oldValue = e.value;
            e.value = value;
            afterNodeAccess(e);
            return oldValue;
        }
        return null;
}

foreach方法

@Override
public void forEach(BiConsumer<? super K, ? super V> action) {
        Node<K,V>[] tab;
        if (action == null)
            throw new NullPointerException();
        if (size > 0 && (tab = table) != null) {
            int mc = modCount;
            for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; ++i) {
                for (Node<K,V> e = tab[i]; e != null; e = e.next)
                    action.accept(e.key, e.value);
            }
            //判断modeCount是否改变,如改变抛出异常
            if (modCount != mc)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
        }
}

序列化被transient修饰的变量

private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
        throws IOException {
        int buckets = capacity();
        // Write out the threshold, loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultWriteObject();
        s.writeInt(buckets);
        s.writeInt(size);
        internalWriteEntries(s);
    }

    /**
     * Reconstitute the {@code HashMap} instance from a stream (i.e.,
     * deserialize it).
     */
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
        throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException {
        // Read in the threshold (ignored), loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultReadObject();
        reinitialize();
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                             loadFactor);
        s.readInt();                // Read and ignore number of buckets
        int mappings = s.readInt(); // Read number of mappings (size)
        if (mappings < 0)
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal mappings count: " +
                                             mappings);
        else if (mappings > 0) { // (if zero, use defaults)
            // Size the table using given load factor only if within
            // range of 0.25...4.0
            float lf = Math.min(Math.max(0.25f, loadFactor), 4.0f);
            float fc = (float)mappings / lf + 1.0f;
            int cap = ((fc < DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY) ?
                       DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY :
                       (fc >= MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ?
                       MAXIMUM_CAPACITY :
                       tableSizeFor((int)fc));
            float ft = (float)cap * lf;
            threshold = ((cap < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY && ft < MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) ?
                         (int)ft : Integer.MAX_VALUE);

            // Check Map.Entry[].class since it's the nearest public type to
            // what we're actually creating.
            SharedSecrets.getJavaOISAccess().checkArray(s, Map.Entry[].class, cap);
            @SuppressWarnings({"rawtypes","unchecked"})
            Node<K,V>[] tab = (Node<K,V>[])new Node[cap];
            table = tab;

            // Read the keys and values, and put the mappings in the HashMap
            for (int i = 0; i < mappings; i++) {
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                    K key = (K) s.readObject();
                @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
                    V value = (V) s.readObject();
                putVal(hash(key), key, value, false, false);
            }
        }
    }

HashMapkey为什么重写hashcodeequals

Object类的hashCode方法:底层采用C语言编写的,根据对象地址转换成整数类型
如果俩个对象的hashcode值相等的情况下,对象的内容值不一定相等。
如果俩个对象的equals值相等,则hashcode值一定相等。

HashMap如何比较俩个key是否一样的?就是通过hashcode方法和equals方法比较的

hashmap如何存放key为null的值

//通过代码可知,key为null的值存放在数组下标为0的位置,如果下标0已经有key了,那么就采用链表的方式下放null
static final int hash(Object key) {
        int h;
        return (key == null) ? 0 : (h = key.hashCode()) ^ (h >>> 16);
}
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